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Cattle Immune Health Testing



A balanced immune system is important for the welfare and productivity of farm animals. Cattle with good immune health are less prone to diseases, healthier and more productive. When an animal is infected with bacteria, viruses or other pathogens, the immune system of the animal is activated. An active immune status is a sign of potential infection. During pregnancy, the immune system of cows and heifers has to make certain changes to maintain a pregnancy to full term. Lack of such changes is known to cause early pregnancy loss. However, these immune activity changes also make pregnant and transition cows and heifers more vulnerable to infectious diseases. By closely monitoring the immune status of a cattle herd, cattle owners can discover sick animals earlier, identify pregnant cows and heifers with underlying reproductive health problems for prompt treatment, identify animals with strong immune system and avoid excessive use of antibiotics on healthy and low risk animals.


D2Dx™  immunity test is a blood test to evaluate the general immune status and health of an animal. The test detects active immune responses and Th1/Th2 immunity shift caused by certain infections, pregnancy, and other conditions that involve the animal’s immune system.  Research studies conducted by Nano Discovery and its partners have shown that D2Dx™  test can identify calves with underlying infections; identify dairy cows that are more likely to develop health problems such as ketosis and mastitis following calving; and identify calves with good immune health that can gain more body weight in a feedlot. While D2Dx™ test is not a diagnostic test, the test can potentially bring many benefits to cattle owners by helping owners monitor the health of their cattle herd more closely, make informative management decisions, reduce cost and improve productivity.


Better Immune Health, Higher Average Daily Gain of Young Calves

A study was conducted at a feedlot on 150 calves at the age of 6-8 months old. The calves were tested on the day of arrival at the feedlot. After 50 days, the calves were weighed and the average daily gain (ADG) was calculated. This study found that calves with medium test scores and balanced immunity have the highest ADG. For steers, the difference in ADG between medium and high score group is close to 1.2 lb.

Th1/Th2 Immune Balance Shift During Pregnancy

A study was conducted on 79 pregnant cows in a dairy farm. Data shows that the  D2Dx™ test score increases with the DCC (Days Carried Calf) of the pregnant cows. This increase reflects the immunity shift of pregnant cows from a Th1-dominant to a Th2-dominant response. While this shift is necessary for successful pregnancy, it also makes cows more susceptible to infectious diseases.

Identify Aging Cows with Declined Immune Health and Decreased Productivity

A study was conducted at a beef cattle ranch on 165 cows. The study shows that the D2Dx™ test score of the cows increases over age, but declines sharply after the cow reaches ~10 years old. This change signals a decline in the immune health and reproductive potential of the cows. D2Dx™ test may help owners identify aging cows that are no longer productive, and make better management decisions.

D2Dx™ test can be conducted through two options: Option 1 - submitting whole blood samples to Nano Discovery’s central laboratory located in Orlando, Florida, or Option 2 - conducting the test in the farm or local veterinary clinics by a trained staff.

Option 1. Submit Sample for Laboratory Testing

To submit samples for laboratory testing, one tube of whole blood, approximately 1 mL, needs to be sent to Nano Discovery’s central laboratory located in Orlando, Florida using overnight shipping. The test results are available within 1-2 days upon receipt of the samples.

Option 2. Conduct Testing in the Farm

We sell test kits for ranch and dairy owners, veterinary practitioners to perform the test in their local farms and clinics. Please inquire for additional information.


September 9, 2019 - Nano Discovery Inc. launches new blood test for cattle immune health testing


Nano Discovery Inc. is a proud member of the Florida Cattlemen's Association


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